In 1953 and 1954, An experiment was run that has been long used, by those who support evolution and wish to deny any form of creation, to say that life is the result of the evolution of simple amino acids to the highly complex life that is present today and that life was not created by God or any other superior being. This was the Miller-Urey spark flask experiment and those people claimed that it could hold the key to the origin of life on Earth.
The premise of the experiment was that certain gases such as methane, ammonia, Hydrogen, and water were placed into a flask and sparks of electricity was passed through which resulted in the creation of some amino acids and other carbon based organic compounds. Indeed, there were some simple amino acids produced along with some other organic chemicals. The outcome of this was that many anti-creationists exclaimed "see, organic compounds and hence life could be created by electric sparks such as lightning." The problem is that while these are "organic chemicals" they are in no way living or even close to such.
The research was basically fine. It showed that an electric discharge could convert carbon dioxide ( basically an organic chemical ) or methane ( also another already organic chemical ) along with other gases into some organic chemicals that were not present before. However, it did not come close to creating a protein , lipids, carbohydrates, or nucleic acids. This research has been repeated many times with some improvements over the years but all of this misses the point that life is more than a bunch of amino acids formed by a spark. Even the so called newer, more advance experiments fail at that. The point is that no matter what they are able to create with electric discharges, they are not going to be able to create a living organism without the Ribosome. The Ribosome is the only intracellular organelle that is able to translate RNA to amino acid sequences. This being necessary for life, makes life impossible without the Ribosome. A virus does not have a ribosome and therefore is not classified as living. It is not capable of performing the minimum basic functions of life.
The organic chemicals produced by these experiments and the reported outcome of such was of course was built on false information. The first and most important flaw in this claim is that they completely left out the fact that the most abundant compounds created were methanol, formic acid ( ant venom ), and formaldehyde. All of these are extremely toxic to any and all life due to the fact that they denature proteins. In fact, these toxic chemicals actually destroy most of the organic compounds that they were trying to produce.
On top of that, the distance between these simple amino acids and other organic compounds and the production of RNA, DNA, and proteins is immense. Such is not likely to occur in any situation without some specific intervention. The truth is that any RNA, DNA, or protein must be a very exact sequence. An example of this is in the flawed human Genome. We can not make several vitamins due to errors in our DNA structure which prevents our bodies from making numerous compounds. There are of course, many other examples.
This brings us to another critical point. Even if perfect, DNA or RNA do absolutely NOTHING on their own. RNA and DNA are nothing but a sequence of instructions that are needed to build proteins and other substances in the cell. RNA or DNA is basically nothing but a computer program that tells the life computer how to build the various things needed in order for life to continue.
The next point is even more critical and that is the point of entropy. Those who support the idea that life came out of some random collection of amino acids that somehow reformed itself in to a living organism, fail to recognise the fact that the universe tends to move towards being more random and less organized. Autologous life flies in the face of entropy.
The life computer is known as the Ribosome which is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells. It serves as the only site of biological protein synthesis as it links amino acids together in the order specified by messenger RNA molecules. mRNA which are transcribed from DNA in most cells.
The point here is that it is the Ribosome which is the key to life. There is no life known to exist without ribosomes and ribosomes are extremely complex, highly ENGINEERED structures. Being composed of several individual complexly folded chains and very specific proteins and enzymes, makes it highly improbable that the ribosome arose out of some primordial pool of amino acids. The requirements that had to be met in even the most primitive units of the ribosome were so strict that it almost implicitly rules that possibility out. Just one wrong placement of an amino acid or ribonucleic acid in just one of the chains can cause complete failure to function. No ifs, ands, or buts. Also, there are two basically different Ribosomes, one is for prokaryotic organisms ( basically microbes without a defined nucleus ) and the other is for Eukaryotes ( all other organisms that have a nucleus ). While there appears to be some evolution as to the increasing complexity of ribosome in congruence with the increasing complexity of life, there is not any random variation of the common core and no pre ribosomes and no 'almost ribosomes' and no 'functioning partial ribosomes'. While some organic compounds may be created with the passing of electricity through a mixture of water and some other gases, there is basically little or no chance for such a creation of a ribosome. It was specifically designed to carry out the very function that is so necessary for a living cell, to translate RNA into specific amino acid sequences.
It is true that in advanced organisms, the structures of ribosome sequence may be stored in DNA, however, it still could not be replicated without the presence of a ribosome.
Without the Ribosome, all of the other organic matter in the universe does not live.
Evidence #1, I provide as example, A Virus, has either DNA or RNA and it also has proteins, including in some cases, certain enzymes and other organic molecules. It does not contain a Ribosome and therefore it is not a living organism. Without the Ribosome, it has no life and must inject its genetic material into a living cell in order to replicate.
Evidence #2, Ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) such as diphtheria toxin, pseudomonas exotoxin, ricin, and mistletoe lectin, are a family of protein toxins that bring about inhibition of protein synthesis by directly interacting with and inactivating the ribosomes or by modification of factors involved in translation, usually the elongation step. When the Ribosome is blocked or obstructed from its function, the cell is no longer living.
Support: ribosomes – the tiny machines that make proteins in cells – are fundamental to life and are one of the most ancient cellular players. Their job is so critical that their structure and function are consistent across all life-forms on Earth, and some portions have even been found to be identical in all organisms examined so far. The "common core is almost completely identical in all cases and represents the original form of the Ribosome.
As a note, the Ribosome is only one of the complexities of life that required that it be engineered. Our creator is the greatest engineer of all.
Translation, the decoding of mRNA into protein, is the third and final element of the central dogma. The ribosome, a nucleoprotein particle, is responsible and essential for this process. The bacterial ribosome consists of three rRNA molecules and approximately 55 proteins, components that are put together in an intricate and tightly regulated way. from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2168646/
One major effect of antibiotics is the cessation of ribosomal activity.
This effect can also be brought about through phosphate starvation: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC214624/
Without ribosomes to produce proteins, life as we know it would not be possible.
Ribosomal RNA, in short, is not just a structural scaffold for proteins, but the vestigial remnant of a primordial genome that may have encoded a self-organizing, self-replicating, auto-catalytic intermediary between macromolecules and cellular life.
The resting position of DNA is very tightly curled up with its genes inaccessible. Resting DNA is so stable that it can protect its genes for 10,000 years or more, allowing scientists to recover DNA from frozen mammoths. This is not a molecule yearning to disperse its genes, but one that wants to conserve them by remaining curled up in a knot. ... The resting state of a ribosome is: “I’m ready to translate DNA into proteins.” Ribosomes “want” to convert genes into working molecules. Cells and organisms have evolved to optimise the replication of ribosomes, and ribosomes are almost the same across all species.
The common core of the ribosome is essentially the same in humans, yeast, bacteria and archaea – in all living systems.
Their hypothesis is that primordial ribosomes were self-replicating intermediates between the prebiotic world and the first cellular form of life, LUCA (Last Universal Common Ancestor). ... The results of the Root-Bernsteins, in their opinion, clearly favor their hypothesis, that the ribosome may have been a primordial self-replicating entity, over the alternative hypothesis that rRNA contains no genetic information or that it contains random genetic information. All genetically encoded tRNAs for all twenty amino acids are encoded (with overlapping) in the 16S and 23S rRNAs. In fact, it would be possible to generate all the tRNA sequences by cutting or editing the rRNA itself into appropriate fragments.
ribosomes – the tiny machines that make proteins in cells – are fundamental to life and are one of the most ancient cellular players. Their job is so critical that their structure and function are consistent across all life-forms on Earth, and some portions have even been found to be identical in all organisms examined so far.
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